The social security was founded in 1955 in Cambodia in accordance with Royal Kret No. 55 and 306. What is the most regretful during the genocidal regime (1975-1979), the social security was vanished completely. From 1979 to 1993, the Cambodian was entitled to enjoy the health care services free of charge. After the 1993 election, Department of Social Security was established. This department took responsibility for organizing entirely the Prakas for launching the social protection for persons in private sectors. Consequently, the revision of the Provisions of the Labour Law in 1992 is the current labour law enacted in 1997 implemented by the Department of Employment (currently this department was transferred into General Department of Employment). Then the social security law was stipulated by The National Assembly, dated September, 2002, which is currently known as Law on the Social Security Schemes for Persons Defined by the Provisions of the Labour Law. Sub-Decree on the Establishment of the National Social Security Fund set forth in 2007 which was established to replace the Department of Social Security. NSSF was founded with a view to manage the protection of social security in conformity with the National Law on Social Security and the Provisions of Social Security in pursuance of Sub-Decree. After comprehensive organization, NSSF have been implemented in late 2008.

In pursuance of law, action plans of Royal Government, growth of national economy, and local integrity, the National Social Security Fund has been ready to extend, strengthen, and further build its capacity through redrawing up the five-year action plan consisting of precise visions and missions for implementing the social security with effectiveness, transparency, accountability, and punctuality for persons defined by the Provisions of the Labour Law with a view to having entitlement to the social security services when the workers contain the contingency such as: old age, invalidity, fatality, work injury, or miscellaneous contingencies including diseases and maternity.

Based on all-sectoral growth of Cambodia, social security insurance is extremely significant for providing the protection to the Cambodian people wholly and partly for the workers are employed in the enterprises/establishments based on the sharing-culture and solidarity guidelines in the society with a view to ensuring the income security; it means that through the social security insurance, no one shall fall into the poverty forever. Furthermore, the social security policy also play vital roles in contributing to the poverty eradication of Royal Government of Cambodia through the guidelines of income allocation; it means that the lucrative employee helps the low-paid, the healthy assists the patient, the disabled, or the victim suffering from miscellaneous accidents, and the young helps the ageing persons. This move helps the people in the entire society gain the happiness in their livelihood and ensure to keep the stability and harmonization in the society.